In the design of electronic systems, in order to avoid detours and save time, the anti-interference requirements should be fully considered and avoided, and remedial measures against interference should be avoided after the design is completed. There are three basic elements that form interference:
(1) Interference source, which refers to the component, device or signal that causes interference. It is described in mathematical language as follows: du/dt, where di/dt is large, is the source of interference. Such as: lightning, relays, thyristors, motors, high-frequency clocks, etc. may become sources of interference.
(2) Propagation path refers to the path or medium that interferes with the propagation from the interference source to the sensitive device. A typical interference propagation path is the conduction through the wires and the radiation from the space.
(3) Sensitive devices refer to objects that are easily disturbed. Such as: A / D, D / A converter, microcontroller, digital IC, weak signal amplification
And so on.
The basic principles of anti-jamming design are: suppressing interference sources, cutting off interference propagation paths, and improving the anti-jamming performance of sensitive devices.
(similar to the prevention of infectious diseases)
1 suppression interference source
The source of interference suppression is to reduce the du/dt, di/dt of the interference source as much as possible. This is the first consideration and important principle in anti-jamming design, and it often has a multiplier effect. Reducing the du/dt of the interference source is mainly achieved by connecting capacitors across the interference source. Reducing the di/dt of the interferer is achieved by connecting the inductor or resistor in series with the source loop and adding a freewheeling diode.
Common measures to suppress interference sources are as follows:
(1) The relay coil increases the freewheeling diode to eliminate the back EMF interference generated when the coil is disconnected. The addition of a freewheeling diode will delay the turn-off time of the relay. After the Zener diode is added, the relay can move more times per unit time.
(2) Connect the spark suppression circuit at both ends of the relay contact (usually RC series circuit, the resistance is generally selected from a few K to tens of K, and the capacitor is selected as 0.01uF) to reduce the spark effect.
(3) Add a filter circuit to the motor, pay attention to the capacitor and inductor leads as short as possible.
(4) Each IC on the board should be connected with a high frequency capacitor of 0.01μF ~ 0.1μF to reduce the impact of the IC on the power supply. note
For high-frequency capacitor wiring, the wiring should be close to the power supply terminal and be as short and as short as possible. Otherwise, it will increase the equivalent series resistance of the capacitor, which will affect the filtering effect.
(5) Avoid 90-degree fold lines during wiring and reduce high-frequency noise emissions.
(6) The RC suppression circuit is connected to both ends of the thyristor to reduce the noise generated by the thyristor (this thyristor may break down when this noise is severe).
According to the propagation path of interference, it can be divided into two types: conducted interference and radiated interference. Conducted interference is the interference that propagates through a wire to a sensitive device. High-frequency interference noise and the frequency band of the wanted signal can be cut off by adding a filter to the wire to cut off the propagation of high-frequency interference noise, and sometimes by isolating the optocoupler. The hazard of power supply noise should be paid special attention to handling. Radiation interference refers to interference that propagates through space radiation to sensitive devices. The general solution is to increase the distance between the interferer and the sensitive device, isolate them with ground and add a shield to the sensitive device.
2 Common measures to cut off the interference propagation path are as follows:
(1) Fully consider the impact of the power supply on the microcontroller. The power supply is well done, and the anti-interference of the entire circuit has solved more than half. Many single-chip microcomputers are very sensitive to power supply noise. It is necessary to add a filter circuit or a voltage regulator to the power supply of the single-chip microcomputer to reduce the interference of the power supply noise on the single-chip microcomputer. For example, a magnetic bead and a capacitor can be used to form a π-shaped filter circuit. Of course, 100 Ω can be used when the condition is not high.
The resistor replaces the magnetic beads.
(2) If the I/O port of the MCU is used to control noise devices such as motors, isolation should be added between the I/O port and the noise source (increasing the π-shaped filter circuit). Control noise devices such as motors, and add isolation between the I/O port and the noise source (increasing the π-shaped filter circuit).
(3) Pay attention to the crystal wiring. The crystal oscillator and the MCU pins are as close as possible, and the clock region is isolated by the ground wire. The crystal oscillator case is grounded and fixed. This measure can solve many difficult problems.
(4) Reasonable partitioning of the circuit board, such as strong and weak signals, digital and analog signals. Keep interference sources (such as motors, relays) away from sensitive components (such as microcontrollers) whenever possible.
(5) Separate the digital area from the analog area by ground wire, separate the digital ground from the analog ground, and connect it to the power ground at one point. A/D and D/A chip wiring are also based on this principle. This requirement has been considered when the manufacturer assigns A/D and D/A chip pinouts.
(6) The ground wire of the MCU and the high-power device should be grounded separately to reduce mutual interference. Place high-power devices on the edge of the board as much as possible.
(7) Anti-interference components such as magnetic beads, magnetic rings, power supply filters, and shields can be used in key areas such as I/O ports, power lines, and circuit board connectors to significantly improve the anti-jamming performance of the circuit.